Drip Irrigation

Micro irrigation or drip irrigation is a method of delivering water to plants in such a way as to aid in the conservation of it. It uses perforated plastic tubing with a pump and emitters or drippers that water flow thru. When the emitter is placed near the root of the plant, the water drips directly into the path of the root. Combined with mulching, micro irrigation can be effective in conserving water as well as being efficient and ecological.

Micro irrigation is used not only in private gardening but can also be used in commercial greenhouses and on farms, large and small. Automation of a drip system can be effective as it can be less labor intensive for the care and feeding of plants. Fertilizers can even be added to the water for efficiency. For less than ideal farm lands, with slopes or hills, micro irrigation is less costly than leveling the land. Micro irrigation will cause less run-off and help control erosion.

There are different types of micro irrigation. The most known is the drip irrigation method where the dripper or emitter is close to each plant’s roots. This type is perfect for close growing row crops such as strawberries, which require damp roots. Drip irrigation helps in controlling disease from molding or damp leaves.

Other types also include the micro-sprinkler irrigation, usually used in enclosed environments such as greenhouses. The water is emitted thru the air in micro sprays. A bubbler is a method where the emitter forces a larger pattern of water on the surface of the soil. This would be used for plants requiring more water and humidity. A rotating sprinkler can spread water in a much larger area when it rotates.

Micro irrigation may be expensive to start with however. Consider the extra costs of tubing, the pump, and the emitters. Also consider the maintenance costs of replacement parts. The plastic tubes will deteriorate over time when exposed to the sun. It is therefore necessary to make the installation semi-permanent by burying the tubing slightly under the surface of the soil. Clogging is another issue. Although new developments create better made emitters, the perforations will eventually clog up from the saline or from the surrounding dirt. If the installation is not permanent, the tubing will have to be cleaned up and stored after each harvest, making it another cost issue.

In ecological terms, micro irrigation is perfect in the case of hot and dry climates where there is a lack of water. Drip irrigation can be advantageous in reducing evaporation. The same amount of water may be used, however it will be used in a more concentrated way. Labor costs can be lowered substantially with automated controls. Adding fertilizer to the water is an added bonus in lowering labor costs. The low pressure pumps use considerably less energy than other forms of irrigation. In areas which use recycled water, drip irrigation is usually the method to deliver the water. Regulations usually do not allow recycled water to be sprayed into the air.

Micro Irrigation Emitter Device Modes and Irrigation Forms

Micro irrigation literally refers to an irrigation system that uses small, or micro, devices. A micro irrigation system is also an irrigation system that is low pressured and sprays, mists, or drips. They can deliver water onto soil surfaces or directly into the plant zone which is under the soil surface. The water is applied through an emitter. Emitters are made from plastic, and are prepared to only release a specific amount of water with a precise amount of pressure. There are three different modes for an emitter device these are drip mode, bubbler mode, or micro sprinkler mode. Each has different purposes, and do function differently, but all micro irrigation systems have their own advantages.

Drip irrigation is an effective way to water projects as small as home gardens to as large as farm properties, while saving water and reducing weed growth. In drip mode, water simply drips or trickles from the various pipes, valves, and emitters. Drip irrigation allows the choice between using it as line source or a point source depending on how the emitters are arranged. The emitter used in this mode is called a dripper and can have flow rates as low as .16 US gallons per hour and as high as 4 US gallons per hour.

Bubbler mode is when the water literally bubbles out from the emitter, either running down the emission device or with a bit more pressure creating a small umbrella pattern. Bubbler irrigation is typically used on emitter for every one plant, where deep centralized watering is preferred. The flow rates range from 2 US gallons per hour to 20 US gallons per hour in bubbler irrigation systems. Bubbler irrigation systems are usually used in specialty gardens and have the disadvantage of being a high maintenance system to upkeep properly, but still offer the benefit of being completely automated.

Micro sprinklers are also known as spray or sprinkler heads, and they come in various types for various projects. The water is sprayed, misted or sprinkled in predetermined patterns by the emitters throwing the water that way. There are many forms of sprinkler heads. Their biggest benefit is having large coverage, meaning only a few devices are needed to cover a large area. The average plow are for a micro sprinkler irrigation systems is anywhere from three US gallons per hour to thirty US gallons per hour. These are the most common form of all micro irrigation systems.

A micro irrigation by its literal definition means it uses small devices to irrigate, and in a way that is what they do. They are truly a low pressure irrigation system that has three different emitter modes, drip, bubbler and micro sprinkler, that all have different benefits and functions. The water is always applied through emitters either directly onto the top soil or under the surface to reach the plants roots. They offer many advantages such as using less water than other types of irrigation systems, but also have the disadvantage of being more expensive to set up than most other systems.

Micro Irrigation and Home Gardening

Conscious about water conservation and ecology? Got an odd shaped garden or farm? Hilly terrain? All these things can be addressed with micro irrigation. Whether it’s a commercial undertaking or just for private use, micro irrigation can be utilized to provide economical and ecological changes. Micro irrigation is a system of perforated tubing and pipes attached with emitters that deliver water to plants using a low pressured, slow drip. The emitters are place directly over the area of the root of the plants with the water dripping out constantly yet maintaining a balance in the humidity between air and soil.

Originally used for commercial growers, drip irrigation is now widely available to home gardeners in do it yourself kits available in most hardware shops. It’s perfect for the container garden or for berms as it reduces water run-off. In cases of hills or slopes, micro irrigation will help to control erosion since the water pressure is low. In drought or areas with in-frequent rain, drip systems are an economical way to deliver water to plants as the water is applied directly where it is most needed. In landscapes of changing situations, a drip system is advantageous as it can adapt by either adding to or eliminating the parts or by repositioning the tubing to the desired location.

Drip systems can eliminate many diseases among plants since the leaves stay dry. The tubing is generally laid just under the surface of the soil with the emitters close to each plant base. This also prevents the unsightly rust or mold stains on your house siding from sprinkler spray. And, with automated controls available, those with busy lifestyles don’t have to think about watering the garden.

Historically, drip systems started with the use of clay pots with holes and filled with water were buried in the ground. This evolved into clay pipes with holes and now with new developments, perforated plastic tubes are used. Developed for commercial use and for areas with drought conditions, it has become available for general use.

Economically, drip systems will cost more in start-up with having to purchase tubing and the emitters. There will be maintenance costs for replacing parts that deteriorate over time. Regular maintenance is also imperative as there are clogging issues. However, long term use benefit in lowering water costs. With the addition of mulch, there is less chance for evaporation.

There are various types of emitters now available. The drip system can have a pressure sensitive valve to allow different water pressures. There are also bubblers and micro sprinklers. Bubblers let out more water into large pattern areas. Micro sprinklers are above ground and sends out micro sprays of water into the air. This was used more in greenhouse settings to allow for air humidity. Tubing is also sold with different ranges of perforation. Soaker tubes are also available with no emitters necessary. These are just the tubes with holes to allow for water to run out and soak the area the tube lays on.

The Most Efficient Way to Water Plants

Do you keep a garden at home? Or do you have a commercial farm? How do you water them? Water conservation has been advocated for years by environmentalists. Many governments around the world have instituted programs to conserve water even in countries where water source has never been a problem.

Water is life, so goes an old adage. Almost every human activity involves the use and application of water. To produce food, we need water. To grow plants in our garden, to grow crops in our farm, to keep the grasses in golf courses green, water is an absolute requirement. Overall, agriculture is the single human activity that consumes the freshest water on the planet. In fact, it is estimated that almost 70% of water use worldwide is for farm irrigation.

To reduce the water usage in agriculture, more and more people like home gardeners and small commercial farms are switching to micro-irrigation system and abandoning the conventional and often costly irrigation systems such as surface, sprinkler and center pivot. These irrigation systems usually employ methods that run counter to both national and international programs that discourage their use.

The localized irrigation system employs various methods to minimize water usage in irrigating the plants. Three methods which are deemed most efficient in the localized irrigation system are the following: drip, micro-sprinkler and bubbler irrigation. One common characteristic shared by these three micro-irrigation methods is the way water is distributed from a source at a very low pressure through a network of pipes.

The micro-irrigation methods are actually not distinctly unique irrigation systems. They may differ only in the method by which the water is applied to the plant but they are quite related to each other having only one system. This system uses three different emission devices called emitters. The emitter is a metering device which discharges water in a precise manner.

To demonstrate, in a drip irrigation method, the system uses a device which allows the water to pass through the emitter in a dripping mode. This method is believed to be the most water-efficient of all because the water trickles directly near or at the root system of the plant. This method is more suitable to irrigate row crops such as onions, squash, melons, tomatoes and peppers.

In the bubbler irrigation method, the water passes through the bubbler head and runs down from the device or spreads out to the plant. This method dissipates water pressure passing through narrow orifices or openings.

The micro-sprinkler method meanwhile uses an emitter that throws water into the air. Much like the sprinkler system in macro irrigation system, the micro-sprinkler, as its name suggests, sprays or sprinkles a very little amount of water much like thin sprays. These micro-irrigation methods may be desirable in areas where fresh water is scarce but it is advisable in almost all practical irrigation applications anywhere even in areas with abundant water supply. This system is not only meant to efficiently use the limited water supply in certain areas but also a way of water conservation effort.

There are more advantages than disadvantages in using micro-irrigation methods. One obvious advantage is the amount of water you save. Other advantages include the increased yield of crops per unit of farm, energy savings and the elimination of extensive manual labor.

Micro Irrigation Makes Valuable Contributions to Agriculture

In dry and hot parts of the world, micro irrigation is the answer to landscaping a lush garden. Micro irrigation, or drip irrigation is a process in which water is carried to the actual root of the plant and not just to the surrounding dirt. It uses pipes, tubes, and a dripper to slowly deliver the water. This method uses less water than normal irrigation and is more efficient and ecological.

In ancient times, a clay pot with holes were filled with water and buried in the ground. Then, a clay pipe was used, which eventually changed into the more common perforated plastic tubing. Even newer developments include a plastic water emitter located where the root sits in which the water drips out. Newer and newer methods make this a valuable contribution to the agriculture world, especially those areas lacking rain and water. Other types of micro irrigation include the bubbler, where the drip is more spread out, and the micro sprinkler, which is used overhead where the water is emitted in micro-sprays. This is usually in a closed setting such as a greenhouse.

Ideally, the irrigation tube is buried in the dirt, close to the surface. At each plant, the emitter is placed into the tubing (which is perforated). A pump pressurizes the water slowly thru the emitters. If drip irrigation is combined with mulching, this form of watering would actually reduce surface evaporation and be quite effective in conservation methods. Drip irrigation can also help reduce foliage diseases that come about with wet and moldy leaves because the water goes directly down to the main root.

Micro irrigation is not necessarily used just for the private garden. It is used in farms as well as commercial greenhouses. It has proven successful in a commercial sense due to automation. Also, with piping and pressurized pumps, fertilizer can be added to the water. This automates the watering and feeding of plants and is less labor intensive. On land that is hilly or sloped, micro irrigation can be the answer in avoiding run-off. The cost of micro irrigation would cost less than leveling the land for any type of farming and can help control erosion. On farms growing crops spaced closely together, such as strawberries, micro irrigation can help in more direct watering methods. For crops grown under cover, requiring more water, micro irrigation can help control the flow.

The disadvantage of micro irrigation is the start-up costs of purchasing tubing, emitters, and pumps, especially for a large scale operation. The costs of maintaining a system may be high in the form of clogging or animal damage. Replacement of parts may potentially be costly. Take into account that after the harvest, the cleanup of the tubes and emitters will also be a cost factor. Fertilizing will have to be researched as some applications require top dressed water to activate. The sun may shorten the lifespan of the tubing if it is laid on top of the soil, requiring additional replacement purchase.

Popular Poker Players – Celebrities Who Left their Mark on the Game

Poker has been a very interesting and a popular game since ages. The game has been popular in all parts of the world and today, the high profile poker tournaments and events are catching the attention of everyone. Even celebrities seem to be hooked up to the game in a big way. With their large bankrolls it is not uncommon to see celebrities in high stakes poker tournaments. Although not all of them are serious players, some of them are actually quite good at it.

Popular Poker Players

Given below are a few popular celebrity poker players:

Ben Affleck- Ben Affleck had won the California Poker Championship in the year 2004 and since then he is considered to be one of the most well-known celebrity players. Affleck had won a total of $356,400 in the championship and he took his lessons from pros like Annie Duke.

Patrick Bruel- he is a famous French actor and singer and he also happens to be a great poker player. Although he is not quite famous in the US, serious poker players tend to recognize him around the world. In the year 1998, he won WSOP bracelet and has played in several WSOP events since then.

Jennifer Tilly- Jennifer Tilly has been nominated for Oscars over the years and she has also managed to achieve impressive accomplishments in poker. In 2005, she won her first ever WSOP bracelet and then t he WPT Ladies Tournament. She has also participated in other tournaments like Poker Superstars and Poker Royale.

Josh Malina- Josh Malina has featured in movies like West Wing and Sports Night. Malina had been a serious poker player even before he started acting. Malina is also producing the Celebrity Poker Showdown for Bravo.

Matt Damon- Matt Damon has featured in a poker star movie called Rounders and it is no surprise that he is actually quite good at the game too. He has been a regular at the WSOP and he had been entered in the main event along with Edward Norton by Miramax Studios for promoting the Rounders.

Toby Maguire- Toby Maguire too has been a regular on the poker circuit. In the year 2004, he was the first winner of the Phil Hellmuth Poker Tournament where he won $95,480. Toby Maguire has in fact been quite impressive in his poker tournaments and has finished in money at many other events. Toby received his lessons from Daniel Negreanu.

James Woods- James Woods is no new name and is known to be one of the most well-known and respected actors. He is also a recognized face in poker circles and is the face of a poker site. He has been playing poker since years and has been known for his skills at the game.

These were just some of the celebrities who have made their mark in the poker world and are known to be quite good players. There are several other celebrities too who love the game and are good at it.

Where to play Internet Texas Holdem

One of the first questions that I am asked from people looking to play Internet Texas Holdem is where they should play. What they do not realize is that this is actually a bit of a complex answer and can vary from person to person. There are dozens and dozens of poker networks that cater to all sorts of different crowds from people looking to play in a 3-D environment to people who really enjoy smoking marijuana. While there are many different networks, there are a few, which do stand above the rest.

The two most prominent poker networks are FullTilt Poker and PokerStars.net. These two websites hold the majority of the players and have most of the high-level pros playing at them. They both provide the things that you should be looking for in a good network like a stable and easy to use platform, a wide variety of deposit and withdrawal options, large and global player bases, and, of course, tons of perks, rewards, and tournaments.

While those are the two largest and most prominent poker websites, one should not assume that they are the only fish in the sea or that they provide the exact experience for which you are looking. What each person is looking to get out of a poker website is different and so determining your needs first before selecting a network is imperative. Regardless of your needs, however, it is important that the network is reliable and provides the player with a quality experience. If a network provides you with a quality experience that is in line with what you want then you cannot really ask for more.

In addition to FullTilt Poker and ru.PlaySolidPoker.com, there are a number of other very good options that are steadily increasing in popularity. Playtech is a large network of many poker websites that operate on the same poker platform. Playtech has been in the online casino industry for many years and they are known for their reliability and software quality. Boss poker is another large poker network that operates many different poker rooms including big-name company rooms. The Entraction network is a popular network that is predominantly geared towards players coming from European countries and offers regional selections that are not available or are not popular in other areas of the world. Finally, there is the Cake Poker Network, which is another poker platform that operates dozens of different poker rooms and includes many poker rooms run by major gambling organizations.

Deciding where you should play Internet Texas holdem is a personal decision with many different variables. The only way to find the right room for you is to sit down and figure out what you are looking to get out of your Internet poker room.

FullTiltPoker Tight Players

Strategy for Playing FullTiltPoker Tight Poker Players

When you’re playing Texas Holdem on FullTilt you’ll often either be playing against a loose player or tight player and not too many players switch there styles up much. Once you can determine the tight poker players on your table then you’ll be able to benefit from there play and steal a lot of pots that you really have no business stealing.

Obviously the first thing that you need to do is find out the tight poker players on your poker table. You should watch the first few rounds around the Full Tilt Poker table and see what players have been folding basically every hand and what players have been calling more often. Once you have observed players on your table not playing many hands then you could assume there a tight player.

When you have a tight poker player you need to be willing to play aggressively and put the pressure on them. When you’re in a pot with loose players you need to make sure you’re the one who takes control of the pot and bet it out. Generally a tight poker player is going to fold there hand and the only time they will call you is if they have a really good draw or high pair with a good kicker. If they raise you then you know you’re definitely beat, but if you can win eight out of ten pots by betting at them then you’re going to make money.

You’re not going to be able to steal every pot from a tight player on Full Tilt because eventually there going to have something and call you. As long as you’re smart about the amount you wager when you’re stealing the pot and don’t overdo your bets then you’re going to make a profit from stealing pots away from tight players. You don’t even need to have a good hand to bluff the pot because if you do get raised then you’re just going to fold your hand.

Now this shouldn’t by any means be your primary strategy when you’re playing poker because it isn’t where you’re going to make much money. You still should be playing your big hands and looking to make most of your money there, but by stealing some pots off of tight players you’ll be able to add to your bankroll without much work. If you’re playing a session for 5-6 hours then you’ll probably be able to make about $50-$100+ depending on the limits you’re playing at by using this strategy.

You should never show your bluffs when you’re stealing the pots on Full Tilt to anyone on the table and don’t discuss what you’re doing with other players. When you’re playing live poker a lot of people try gaining information from you when they don’t get to see what hand you we’re betting. The last thing you want anyone on the table to see is that you’re stealing pots because that’s when you’ll have people calling your bets when you want them to fold. There are usually a couple tight players on every table so you should have no problem finding tight players to steal pots from.

For more information on Full Tilt, go to http://www.poker30.net/fulltiltpoker/


For some, micro-irrigation is quite a common term. For others, it sounds like a foreign term that would have no importance in their day-to-day lives. Simply put, a micro-irrigation system is a watering system that uses a drip, spray, or mist technique to water plants effectively. The emitting technique used is dependent on what type of plants or vegetables need to be watered, and how much water they require.

A micro-irrigation system has many different components, and installing such a system can be quite the daunting task. Items such as tubes, installation tools, fittings, and pipes can cause massive amounts of confusion. It will be a challenge to install, and an ever greater one to pick the correct system, but once you are done these two tasks you will get to experience many different advantages.

First of all, you will save water which of course means saving money. With the appropriate system for the appropriate plant, the amount of wasted water – whether that is through runoff or over watering – is greatly reduced. You will also benefit from saving energy, another costly resource. This is because you will not require a lot of electricity to run your micro-irrigation system; it can be run on a small power unit. In addition, you will be able automate the entire process. Set it for a daily time, and add fertilizer to the water. Once it is set, you can forget it and work on more important things. This can drastically reduce the total amount of work you must do. Micro-irrigation systems are also effective at preventing an outburst of weeds because the ground is not wet for them to grow – the micro-irrigation system only waters the plants you need to water.

Of course, while there are long-term benefits associated with micro-irrigation systems, there are also a few disadvantages you must keep in mind. The first of which is the initial cost. While savings will certainly add up, the micro-irrigation system is very expensive and should only be considered for actual farmers that focus on greenhouses, orchards, or vineyards. Furthermore, you must be prepared to maintain a micro-irrigation system on a regular basis, as there are many particles that can clog the water emitting pipes.

You should also remember that you may need to replace certain parts of the micro-irrigation system if it becomes damaged due to animals or weather. Take some extra steps to ensure it is well protected. This can be done by purchasing extensions and protective sealing that will cover the pip and most fragile parts of the system.

Clearly, there are both pros and cons to installing a micro-irrigation system. Before deciding on which route you are going to take, it is a good idea to consider both the advantages and disadvantages. If you do not, you could make a terrible mistake resulting in thousands of wasted dollars.

Do your research, and take time before making a final decision. This is your safest option when considering such a huge investment like installing a micro-irrigation system.